Graphite and astronomical silicate material are computed using available laboratory and astronomical data. The exfoliation of graphite is a phase transition involving the vaporization of the intercalate in the graphite. Exfoliated graphite is an expanded graphite with a low density. It is noted that the magnetic dipole contribution to absorption in the infrared wavelengths can be important for conducting particles such as graphite. Formulas are given for evaluating electric and magnetic dipole cross-sections for small particles. Absorption cross-sections are evaluated for graphite and silicate particles with sizes between 0.003 and 1.0 microns, and wavelengths from 300 A to 1000 microns. On the basis of polarization profiles computed for both prolate and oblate graphite-silicate spheroids, it is concluded that interstellar silicate grain are predominantly oblate. Extinction curves are calculated for Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck graphite-silicate grain mixtures and are compared to observations. The model is found to be in good agreement with available infrared observations.
This paper reviews the process of the exfoliation of graphite and the exfoliated graphite material. It surveys the applications of exfoliated graphite, covers both reversible and irreversible exfoliation and reviews the methods and mechanism of exfoliation. Other topics include the structure and properties of exfoliated graphite, graphite foils, exfoliated carbon fibres and composites.
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